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The digital revolution has completely changed our lives; we now can broadcast instantaneously to eyeballs all over the world, and anyone can learn practically anything with the help of YouTube and online tutorials. However, this comes at a price.

Our every move in the online space is being tracked and made into profit by a handful of large organisations that are accountable to almost nobody. The cloak of (perceived) anonymity has also emboldened normally rational citizens to post vile comments on social media, causing real harm to real people in the real world.

Is our addiction now too strong that we are powerless to halt this seemingly unstoppable digital tide? This affects not only us, but also the generations that will come after.

Join Andrew Keen as he offers us an insight on how we may reclaim our humanity by adopting a strategy combining regulation, civic responsibility, consumer choice, competitive innovation, and educational solutions.


Entrepreneur, author and broadcaster Andrew Keen is among the world’s best-known contemporary analysts of digital business and culture, and commentators on the digital revolution. He is the author of four books: Cult of the Amateur, Digital Vertigo, The Internet Is Not the Answer and his latest international hit, How to Fix the Future.

He is also executive director of the Silicon Valley innovation salon FutureCast, the host of the popular Internet chat show “Keen On”, a Senior Fellow at CALinnovates, a columnist for CNN and a much-acclaimed public speaker around the world. In 2015, he was named by GQ magazine in their list of the “100 Most Connected Men”.

As a pioneering Silicon Valley based Internet entrepreneur, Keen founded Audiocafe.com and built it into a popular first generation Internet music company. He has also co-founded a number of other Silicon Valley start-up ventures including afterTV and now.tv. Keen is a regular lecturer at major international conferences, speaking on the impact of new technology on 21st century business, education and society.

He was awarded a First Class Degree in History from London University, was a British Scholar at the University of Sarajevo in the former Yugoslavia, and earned a Masters Degree in Political Science from the University of California at Berkeley. He has lectured at many universities around the world including Warsaw, Amsterdam, Stanford, Berkeley and Oxford.

In his sharp and witty book, The Internet is Not the Answer, Keen argues that on balance, the Internet has had a disastrous impact on all our lives. The London Sunday Times acclaimed as a “powerful, frightening read” and the Washington Post called “an enormously useful primer for those of us concerned that online life isn’t as shiny as our digital avatars would like us to believe”.


Asia is once again the center of the world economy, with roughly half the global production, more than half the world's population, and at least half of the world's deep environmental challenges and crises. Asia's successful transformation to sustainable development is vital not only for Asia' future but also for the world's future. In this lecture, Professor Sachs will discuss Asia's major challenges regarding the conservation of biodiversity, transition to low-carbon energy, upscaling of quality education, reduced inequalities of income, and technological innovation.

The Sustainable Development Goals provide a framework for analysis, planning, accountability, politics, and social mobilization for an integrated approach to economic development, social inclusion, and environmental sustainability. Hear from Professor Sachs as he shares his insights on how this framework can be deployed at local, national, and regional levels, as well as by business and civil society.


Jeffrey D. Sachs is a world-renowned professor of economics, leader in sustainable development, senior UN advisor, bestselling author, and syndicated columnist whose monthly newspaper columns appear in more than 100 countries. He is the co-recipient of the 2015 Blue Planet Prize, the leading global prize for environmental leadership. He has twice been named among Time Magazine’s 100 most influential world leaders. He was called by the New York Times, “probably the most important economist in the world,” and by Time Magazine “the world’s best known economist.” A recent survey by The Economist Magazine ranked Professor Sachs as among the world’s three most influential living economists of the past decade.

Professor Sachs served as the Director of the Earth Institute from 2002 to 2016. He was appointed University Professor at Columbia University in 2016, and also serves as Quetelet Professor of Sustainable Development, and Professor of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University. He is Special Advisor to United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres on the Sustainable Development Goals, and previously advised both UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on the Sustainable Development Goals and Millennium Development Goals and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan on the Millennium Development Goals. He is a Distinguished Fellow of the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. Sachs is currently Director of both the Center for Sustainable Development, and the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network under the auspices of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.


Sachs is co-founder and Chief Strategist of Millennium Promise Alliance, and is director of the Millennium Villages Project. Sachs is also one of the Secretary-General’s SDG Advocates, and a Commissioner of the ITU/UNESCO Broadband Commission for Development. He has authored six books, including three New York Times bestsellers (*), in the past decade years: The End of Poverty (2005*), Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet (2008*), The Price of Civilization (2011*), To Move the World: JFK’s Quest for Peace (2013) and The Age of Sustainable Development (2015) and the latest book, Building the New American Economy: Smart, Fair & Sustainable (February 2017).

Professor Sachs is widely considered to be one of the world’s leading experts on economic development, global macroeconomics, and the fight against poverty. His work on ending poverty, overcoming macroeconomic instability, promoting economic growth, fighting hunger and disease, and promoting sustainable environmental practices, has taken him to more than 125 countries with more than 90 percent of the world’s population. For more than thirty years he has advised dozens of heads of state and governments on economic strategy, in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. He was among the outside advisors to Pope John Paul II on the encyclical Centesimus Annus and in recent years has worked closely with the PontificalAcademy of Sciences and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences on the issues of sustainable development.


Sachs is the recipient of many awards and honors, including the Blue Planet Prize, membership in the United States Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Harvard Society of Fellows, and the Fellows of the World Econometric Society. His conversation with Tyler Cowen won the Quartz Podcast Award for best business/economics podcast of 2015. He has received more than 20 honorary degrees, and many awards and honors around the world. Professor Sachs is also a frequent contributor to major publications such as the Financial Times of London, the International Herald Tribune, Scientific American, and Time magazine.

Prior to joining Columbia, Sachs spent over twenty years as a professor at Harvard University, most recently as the Galen L. Stone Professor of International Trade. A native of Detroit, Michigan, Sachs received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees at Harvard.


South Africa might have emerged from the apartheid oppression in April 1994, but its legacy continues to present itself as a formidable challenge to the state. Illiteracy is still prevalent among millions of adults, and the number of school dropouts is increasing at an alarming rate.

Contributing to this state of affairs is the fact that globalisation is imposing structural constraints on what developing nations can and cannot do to extricate themselves from the conditions of underdevelopment. Without proper education, South Africans continue to be trapped in the poverty cycle and are unable to contribute positively to the economy.

In attempts to change this for the better, South Africa has put a premium on education as the only viable socio-economic equaliser and therefore catalyst for change. Will South Africa be able to completely free itself from the shackles of apartheid by using education as a catalyst?

Join us as Mr Kgalema Motlanthe discusses his experiences in South Africa’s struggle against oppression and more.


Mr Kgalema Motlanthe currently serves as Chair of the High Level Panel on the Assessment of Key Legislation and the Acceleration of Fundamental Change as well as Chancellor of the University of Venda, South Africa.

In 2008, Mr Motlanthe was elected President of the Republic of South Africa by Parliament. He served till 2009.


Mr Motlanthe was previously tasked with strengthening the trade union movement in South Africa. Under the National Union of Mineworkers, he was a national office-bearer responsible for education and was also involved in forming shop-steward committees. He was later elected as General Secretary of the union.

After his retirement as President, Mr Motlanthe was appointed Deputy President by President Jacob Zuma. During that period, he took on various leadership roles, of which included Leader of the Anti-Poverty Programme, Chairperson of the Human Resource Development Council and Chairperson of the South African National AIDS Council just to name a few.


Mr Motlanthe also re-established the structures of African National Congress. He served as Secretary General of the ANC from 1997 to 2007, and continued on as Deputy President of the ANC till 2012.


Former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Professor Jan Peter Balkenende is now a global leader in sustainability. In this public lecture, he will share his vision about the roles of government, citizens, companies and tri-sectoral partnership, as well as the roles of universities via education and research, in technology development and social sciences. Prof Balkenende will provide insight in the complexity and dynamics of expectations and responsibilities of working towards sustainable business and society, through concrete examples of collaborations in the Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition.

Globally, the discussions about sustainability are moving towards circular economy. In 2016, the government of the Netherlands announced a nationwide ambition to be fully circular by 2050. What is the expected impact on societal challenges and sustainable development goals? What is the expected international competitive advantage for the Dutch industry, how will this shift alter the global economic landscape? Join Professor Balkenende as he discusses these issues and more.


Professor Jan Peter Balkenende (born in 1956), former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, has been Professor of Governance, Institutions and Internationalisation at Erasmus University Rotterdam since 2010.
Between 2011 and 2016 he has been a partner at EY, focusing on corporate responsibility, international affairs and areas at the interface of the public and private sectors. Since 1 July 2016 he has been External Senior Advisor to EY. Jan Peter Balkenende is currently a member of the Supervisory Board of ING. He also chairs the International Advisory Board of Rotterdam, the Major Alliance, and the Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition. The Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition (DSGC) unites Dutch multinationals AkzoNobel, DSM, FrieslandCampina, Heineken, KLM, Philips, Shell and Unilever. The coalition aims to promote sustainable growth business strategies in The Netherlands and abroad. These multinationals all share the conviction that long-term financial and economic value is inextricably linked to minimised environmental impact, social progress and inclusiveness.

Jan Peter Balkenende studied economic and social history, as well as Dutch law, at VU University Amsterdam. He obtained a doctorate in law with a thesis entitled ‘Government Regulation and Civil Society Organisations’. He subsequently worked at the Netherlands’ Universities Council, the Research Institute of the political party CDA and as a part-time professor at VU University Amsterdam. He was a member of the Amstelveen municipal council and of the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament. From 2002 to 2010, Jan Peter Balkenende was Prime Minister and Minister of General Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In that capacity, he also served as Chair of the Innovation Platform. Before becoming Prime Minister, he published a number of books and articles on a range of subjects, including innovation, development cooperation, European integration, public-private partnerships, social security, government finance, poverty, economic growth, confidence in the economy and the role of the business sector in society. Jan Peter Balkenende received five honorary doctorates from universities in Hungary, Japan, South Korea and the United States.


The European Union's (EU) Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmström reiterates the EU's commitment to promote free and fair trade in our rapidly changing world. As the world's largest trader, the EU remains committed to working with global partners to uphold open markets.  

In her lecture, the Commissioner will set out her ambitious trade agenda, including plans to strengthen the EU's relations with Singapore and ASEAN. The speech takes place in the 60th anniversary year of the Treaty of Rome, which founded the EU, and the 40th anniversary of the Union's formal relations with ASEAN.


Cecilia Malmström is the highest ranking European Union (EU) trade official. Before becoming the EU Commissioner for Trade in 2014, she served as the European Commissioner for Home Affairs from 2010 to 2014.

From 2006 to 2010, she held the post of Minister for EU Affairs for Sweden. From 1999 to 2006 she represented Sweden in the European Parliament. During her time in the European Parliament she held positions in Committees on Foreign Affairs, Constitutional Affairs, the Internal Market and Consumer Protection as well as sub-committees for Human Rights and Security & Defence.

Commissioner Malmström holds a Doctorate in Political Science from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, where she also lectured for a time before being elected a Member of the European Parliament. She is a highly sought after speaker and has been an invited lecturer at leading international universities including Cambridge and Harvard.


Technological developments and digitalization have revolutionised the way we live and have dramatically accelerated globalisation. The 21st century confronts us with tremendous challenges, as well as opportunities, that will define our future: some of the new technologies will be highly transformative and we need to constantly adapt to the dynamics of new developments and socio-economic realities.

Political leadership means setting the right framework of cooperative and sustainable policies so that digital technologies and applications will contribute to the economic strength, societal well-being, and effective governance of a nation.

We have to re-engineer relations and identify new strategic partnerships. Economic development thrives through interdependence and, if well-orchestrated, it is a virtuous cycle and a win-win situation. It also means an increased dialogue within societies, between governments and societies, and between governments. We need to constantly evaluate our current relations, to agree on new visions and to develop new innovative alliances.

Over the past decades, many countries have achieved unprecedented progress in economic development and have lifted millions of people out of poverty. More people have access to education and will contribute to further develop their country. Modern communication technology allows for an almost instant exchange of knowledge, information and opinion all over the globe.

Political leaders need to embrace these new opportunities at national, regional and international level. Together with a wise management of our planet in the face of climate change, the depletion of natural resources and a rising population, this will guarantee prosperity, stability and peace for future generations.

Join us as His Excellency Mr. Xavier Bettel, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, shares his views on political leadership in the digital age.


His Excellency Mr. Xavier Bettel has been Luxembourg’s Prime Minister since 2013. He is also the Minister of State, Minister for Communications and Media, Minister for Religious Affairs as well as Minister of Culture in the coalition government formed by the Democratic Party (DP), the Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party and the Green Party.

A member of the DP since 1989, Mr. Bettel was elected to Parliament for the first time in 1999 at the age of 26 while standing for the DP in the constituency of the Centre. He was re-elected in 2004, 2009 and 2013. In Parliament, he assumed among others the roles of vice-chairman of the Legal Affairs Committee from 2004 to 2013 and vice-chairman of the Committee of Enquiry into the State Intelligence Service from 2012 to 2013. From 2009 to 2011, he assumed the role of chairman of the DP parliamentary group. From January 2013 to November 2015, Mr. Bettel was the chairman of the DP.

At a local level, Mr. Bettel initially served as a municipal councillor of the City of Luxembourg from 2000 to 2005, then as an alderman from 2005 to 2011. Following the municipal elections of 2011, he assumed the role of mayor, an office he held until his appointment as Prime Minister and Minister of State in December 2013.

Professionally, Mr. Bettel worked as a barrister in Luxembourg from 2001 to 2013. Mr. Bettel has a master’s degree in public and European law, and a DEA (post-graduate diploma of advanced studies) in political sciences and public law, both from the University of Nancy, France.


In recent years, there has been a growing awareness that although economic indicators of progress are important, they are not sufficient by themselves to guide policy and maximise the quality of life in societies. Measures of psychological well-being, including “happiness,” or how people feel about and appraise their lives, are gaining widespread recognition as a way of supplementing economic indicators in policy deliberations. The well-being measures point to factors beyond GDP that influence the well-being in societies.

In this talk the validity of the measures of well-being will be briefly discussed, but a major focus will be on why we need societal measures of well-being. Although personality has an effect on people’s well-being, a very large influence comes from the societies and communities in which people reside.

A second focus will be on the policies that thus far have been found to increase well-being, and the progress nations have made in adopting these measures. As societies grow in wealth, there is likely to be a growing concern for quality of life beyond money alone, and the well-being measures can help us create societies in which the well-being of citizens is high.

Join us as Professor Ed Diener, also known as “Dr Happiness”, shares his insights on the need for national accounts of well-being and the policies which can positively impact societies in these areas.


Professor Ed Diener is Alumni Distinguished Professor of Psychology (Emeritus) at the University of Illinois, where he has been a faculty member since 1974. He is currently a professor of psychology at the University of Utah and the University of Virginia.

Prof Diener joined Gallup Organisation as a Senior Scientist in 1999 and is an advisor on research in psychological well-being. His current research focuses on the theories and measurement of well-being; temperament and personality influences on well-being; income and well-being; cultural influences on well-being; and how employee well-being enhances organisational performance.

Prof Diener has received several prestigious scholarly awards. He received the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association and the William James Fellow Award for outstanding contributions to scientific psychology from the Association of Psychological Science. He also was awarded the Distinguished Quality-of-Life Researcher Award from the International Society of Quality of Life Studies. Studies.

Prof Diener’s work has appeared in more than 330 publications; about 250 of these focus on the psychology of well-being. Prof Diener has co-edited three books on subjective well-being: Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, Advances in Quality of Life Theory and Research, and Culture and Subjective Well-Being. He also co-edited the Handbook of Multimethod Measurement in Psychology. Prof Diener wrote a popular book on Happiness with his son, Robert Biswas-Diener and is the co-author of Well-Being for Public Policy.

Prof Diener is past president of three scientific societies: the International Society for Quality of Life Studies, the International Positive Psychology Association, and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. He is also a fellow of five professional psychological associations and societies.

Prof Diener earned his bachelor’s degree in psychology from California State University, Fresno and his doctorate in personality psychology from the University of Washington. Prof Diener has also received several teaching awards.


The use of space is integral to the practice of religion. Physical spaces take on sacred significance as sites of worship, destinations of pilgrimage and indeed, sometimes become places to be fought over, defended and protected. As space is scarce in many contexts, and as different religious and secular needs compete for physical and symbolic space, conflict and violence may erupt. How do religious groups make claims to both religious and secular spaces, and how are such claims managed, negotiated and contested by different secular and religious agencies? How have these dynamics evolved, as globalisation gives rise to new forms of religious competition? At the same time, in the face of competition, conflict and violence, how do religious groups help to develop a capacity for social resilience amongst their adherents? How do religious groups react to situations that require social resilience, and how can social resilience be used as a form of religious regulation?

In a recent book entitled Religion and Space: Competition, Conflict and Violence in the Contemporary World, Professor Lily Kong and Dr Orlando Woods explore these issues and illustrate their perspectives using fascinating examples from around the globe. Join us as Professor Lily Kong, internationally regarded as a thought leader in the study of religion, shares interesting insights into how religious groups interact and negotiate for space in the contemporary world.


Professor Lily Kong is Provost and Lee Kong Chian Chair Professor of Social Sciences at the Singapore Management University.

  A graduate of the National University of Singapore (NUS) and University College London, Professor Kong was a faculty member in the NUS Department of Geography from 1991 to 2015, and held several senior administrative positions during her tenure in NUS including Acting Executive Vice President (Academic Affairs), Yale-NUS College (2011 – 2012); Vice-President (University and Global Relations) (2007 – 2014) and Vice-Provost (Academic Personnel) (2012-2015). 

Professor Kong is widely known for her research on religion, cultural policy and creative economy, urban heritage and conservation, and national identity.  She is on a dozen editorial boards of international journals in her field, and is frequently invited as keynote speaker to conferences in her domain.  Her recent publications include “Religion and Space: Competition, Conflict and Violence in the Contemporary World” (2016), “Food, Foodways and Foodscapes: Culture, Community and Consumption in Post-Colonial Singapore” (2015) and “Arts, Culture and the Making of Global Cities: Creating New Urban Landscapes in Asia” (2015).

  An award-winning researcher and teacher, Professor Kong has received five international fellowship awards including the Commonwealth Fellowship Award and the Fulbright Fellowship Award. She has also won an award from the Association of American Geographers for her contributions to the study of religion.

  She is also a member of Singapore’s Public Service Commission, and also serves on many local boards and committees, as well as internationally.


Prof Dr Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono is the sixth President of the Republic of Indonesia, and also the country’s first directly elected President in the democratic era.

During his two terms in office, Yudhoyono delivered what the World Economic Forum called "Indonesia's golden decade", a period between 2004 and 2014 that was marked by democratic development, political stability, high economic growth and resilience, conflict resolution and robust international role. Under his leadership, Indonesia became a regional power and a G-20 member, assuming important roles on issues ranging from climate change to geopolitics.

Yudhoyono's life story has been nothing less than phenomenal: a military officer who became a cabinet minister and then a President who is one of Asia's most respected statesmen. During his time in office, he overcame many challenges with a steady hand; the country recovered from tsunami and other disasters, the conflict in Aceh was peacefully and permanently resolved in mid-2005; terrorist groups were disbanded and detained; and the economy rebounded. At a time when democracies around the world were in distress, Indonesia's democracy steadily moved from strength to strength.

With a PhD in agricultural economics, Yudhoyono relentlessly pursued his 4-track economic strategy of “pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor, and pro-environment”. His development mantra was "sustainable growth with equity".

Yudhoyono is presently Chairman of the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) based in Seoul, Korea.


As the 7th most populous country in the world, Nigeria has an abundance of both human and natural resources. Being the biggest oil producer and one of the largest manufacturing sectors in Africa, it is the 22nd largest economy in the world. However, Nigeria continues to have the highest number of poor people in Africa today with 61% of its population living in absolute poverty.

The Nigerian Government has been implementing measures to counter these problems since the country’s independence. During Mr Olusegun Obasanjo’s presidency, Nigeria’s average economic growth rate doubled to 6 per cent. Foreign reserves rose from $3.7 billion in 1999 to $45 billion in 2007. Mr Obasanjo’s sound economic stewardship helped clear $30 billion of Nigeria’s debts leaving the country almost debt free.

After his presidency, Mr Obasanjo continues to contribute to combating poverty and disease, promoting youth leadership and supporting education for women, through the Olusegun Obasanjo Foundation. He was also appointed by the United Nations as a special envoy for Africa and has since overseen democratic elections on behalf of the African Union and Economic Community of West African States in countries across the continent.

With the new cabinet sworn in on 11 November 2015, the nation is expecting the Government to address the issues of unemployment and poverty. Will the new leaders be able to bring in greater economic growth and foreign investments? Join us as Mr Obasanjo shares his experiences from his time as President of Nigeria and his views on how the new Government can propel the country forward.


Mr Olusegun Obasanjo served as President of Nigeria from May 1999 to May 2007. It was the culmination of a life spent on the front line of African politics. His elected term in office was characterised by a commitment to the rule of law, economic and political reform.

Mr Obasanjo’s Government paved the way for consolidation in the country’s banking sector, transforming it into one of the most dynamic industries on the continent. In 2008, he was appointed by the United Nations as a special envoy for Africa and has since overseen democratic elections on behalf of the African Union, and the Economic Community of West African States in countries across the continent.

Outside the political arena Mr Obasanjo has been a catalyst in driving Africa’s economic transformation. The region is now amongst the fastest growing in the world, rapidly becoming the destination of choice for international investors looking to emerging and frontier markets. Using his experience as a successful farmer and businessman in Nigeria, he actively engages the community to facilitate more investment into the continent. Mr Obasanjo is also Founder of the Olusegun Obasanjo Foundation, a UK based charity that has a mission of Advancing Human Security for All. The Foundation has initiatives that range from poverty relief to youth empowerment in Africa.


In the natural state of capitalism, where corporations’ main aim is to maximise profits, externalities like environmental damage will always be a resultant factor borne by innocent third parties. The prolonged spell of haze this year has blanketed and affected much of the Southeast Asian region, resulting in higher healthcare cost subsidies for medical conditions exacerbated by the polluted air, the closure of schools and cancellation of outdoor events among others. Many countries like Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, Russia and Japan have provided assistance to help fight the fires with limited success, and the haze is expected to persist into 2016.

Corporations responsible for the air pollution allegedly make profits at the expense of people’s health. To what extent do they have to be responsible for their actions? What are the roles of social institutions like governments, economic bodies and educational institutions in helping to mitigate these externalities? Is there a right balance in the tug of war between free market capitalism and societal intervention, and can it be achieved?

Join Professor Craig Calhoun, Director of London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) as he discusses the interlinked relationship between capitalism, externalities and social institutions.


Professor Calhoun is a world-renowned social scientist whose work connects sociology to culture, communication, politics, philosophy and economics.

He took up his post as LSE Director on 1 September 2012, having left the United States where he was University Professor at New York University, Director of the Institute for Public Knowledge and President of the Social Science Research Council.

Professor Calhoun took a Doctor of Philosophy in History and Sociology at Oxford University and a Master in Social Anthropology at The University of Manchester. He co-founded, with Richard Sennett, Professor of Sociology at LSE, the NYLON programme which brings together graduate students from New York and London for co-operative research programmes.

He is the author of several books including Nations Matter, Critical Social Theory, Neither Gods Nor Emperors and most recently The Roots of Radicalism (University of Chicago Press, 2012).

Describing his own approach to academic work, Professor Calhoun says: "We must set high standards for ourselves, but in order to inform the public well, not to isolate ourselves from it."


After one of the worst financial and economic crisis in recent years, Europe is now bouncing back. Many of the Eurozone nations that looked down and out, are now roaring back to health, which is powering growth across the continent.

However, the crisis has taken its toll and the legacy of the crisis will continue to be felt for years to come. Youth unemployment reached a record high with a staggering 6 million job losses during the crisis. There was also a sharp drop of investment across Europe.

In 2014, the European Commission set up a €315 billion European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI), which aims to reverse the downward trend in investment and help boost job creation and economic recovery, without weighing on national public finances or creating additional debt burdens to the member states.

Jyrki Katainen, Vice-President for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness of the European Commission was tasked to deliver the new jobs, growth and investment plan to enhance the EU Single Market in all its key areas. Join us as he shares his perspectives on how the new investment plan for Europe has the potential to add up to €440 billion to the EU’s GDP and create over one million new jobs in the coming three years.


Jyrki Katainen is currently Vice President of the European Commission responsible for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness. He joined the Commission in July 2014 as Vice-President for Economic and Monetary Affairs and the euro.

As leader of the project team "Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness", Jyrki Katainen is responsible for delivering the new jobs, growth and investment programme, which focuses on removing obstacles to investment, providing visibility and technical assistance to investment projects and making smarter use of new and existing financial resources. To achieve these goals, the plan is active in three areas: mobilising investments of at least €315 billion in three years, supporting investment in the real economy and improving the business environment and financing conditions. This third, and most important part of the plan will include progress towards a Digital Single Market, Energy Union and Capital Markets Union.

Additionally, he is pursuing structural reforms in EU countries and ensuring, together with the Vice-President for the Euro and Social Dialogue, that the EU's economic policy coordination is successful and takes account of the social impacts of reforms whilst helping to improve the business environment to make Europe a more attractive place in which to work and invest.

Before assuming his role as Commission Vice-President, he served as Prime Minister of Finland (2011 – 2014) and Finance Minister (2007 – 2011). He was Member of Finnish Parliament from 1999 – 2014 and President of the Finnish National Coalition Party (2004-2014).

Jyrki Katainen has MSc in Political Science from the University of Tampere, Finland (1998) and he did his Erasmus exchange year at the University of Leicester (1995-96). In 2015 he received honorary doctoral degrees from the University of East Finland and the University of Leicester.


Imagine a world where your computer understands you better than your best friend. Where online shops predict your purchases even before you start browsing, and websites help you seek out partners for business or for life.

In this age of information technology, such a world is fast becoming a reality. Personal data that was once private is now being shared all over social media platforms like Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Instagram. We communicate with others through emails and text messages, leaving behind trails of information that expose our particulars, interests and actions. While there is much to gain from this open exchange of data, there are also serious consequences from giving up our privacy. Without proper controls, we stand to lose our autonomy to commercial entities and governments, who can easily access our personal data for their own interests.

Singapore has begun to tackle this emerging problem through the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA), which aims to govern the collection and use of personal data. Yet with the volume of information amassed online today, are these provisions sufficient to safeguard our privacy? What challenges will businesses face, and how can they mitigate the cost of complying with this new regulation? Professor Alessandro Acquisti, an expert in the behavioural economics of privacy, explores what motivates us to share our personal lives online, and the implications of this behaviour on individuals and the society.


Alessandro Acquisti is a Professor of Information Technology and Public Policy at the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). He is the director of the Privacy Economics Experiments (Peex) lab as well as co-director of the Center for Behavioral and Decision Research (CBDR) at CMU. Alessandro’s studies have spearheaded the application of behavioural economics to privacy and information security decision-making. He has testified before the U.S. Senate and House committees, and has been invited to consult on issues related to privacy policy and consumer behaviour by various government bodies.

Alessandro has been the recipient of the PET Award for Outstanding Research in Privacy Enhancing Technologies, the IBM Best Academic Privacy Faculty Award, and numerous Best Paper awards. He has co-authored three books: Public Response to Alerts and Warnings Using Social Media: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps, Trust 2010: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Trust and Trustworthy Computing and Digital Privacy: Theory, Technologies and Practices, and over 30 journal articles. His findings have been published in many journals, such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science and Journal of Experimental Psychology, and in various media outlets, including the Economist, the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. His TED talks on privacy and human behaviour have been viewed over a million times online.

Alessandro holds a PhD from UC Berkeley, and Master degrees from UC Berkeley, the London School of Economics, and Trinity College Dublin. He has held visiting positions at the Universities of Rome, Paris, and Freiburg, Harvard University, University of Chicago, Microsoft Research, and Google. He is a member of the National Academy of Science’s Committee on Public Response to Alerts and Warnings Using Social Media and Associated Privacy Considerations.


Coming out of the 2008 global financial crisis relatively unscathed, Indonesia showed the world their economic resilience and has posted steady annual growth rates of 6% - 7% ever since. Despite fluctuations and volatility, the Indonesian economy has navigated back to the new normal of no easy-money and fiscal stimulus. It also managed to grow at 5.1% in 2014, at the end of the commodity boom. What comes beyond the new normal? It is hoped that domestic consumption growth fuelled by the growing middle class, investment, strong ties with regional trade partners as well as tremendous growth in regional trade flow will be some of the key drivers behind Indonesia’s growth.

With the inauguration of the new Indonesian President also comes a new era of politics, governance and economic reforms. The new Government is aiming for 7% growth by the latest 2019 based on infrastructure debottlenecking, improving logistics and distribution, as well as improving the investment climate. However, Indonesia faces many challenges, domestically and internationally. Continued resilience of Indonesia, for it to go beyond the new normal and restructure to maintain its competitiveness, will depend on how it responds to external challenges and implements domestic reforms.

As the world’s economic centre of gravity moves towards Asia, will Indonesia follow the pace of its peers, or achieve unprecedented growth against all odds? How can it contribute to the grand plan of ASEAN’s integrated economic community at the end of 2015?

Join us as Professor Mari Pangestu, Indonesia’s leading economist, regional thought leader and experienced policy maker discusses these issues and more.


Professor Mari Pangestu served as Indonesia’s Minister of Trade from 2004 to 2011, and as Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy from 2011 until October 2014.

She obtained her bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Australian National University and her PhD from the University of California, Davis, where she specialised in macroeconomics, and international trade and finance.

She has acquired vast experience over 25 years in academia, second-track processes, international organisations and government, working in areas related to international trade and investment in the multilateral, regional, and domestic settings. As Minister of Trade she played an active role in the WTO; initiated various Ministers of Trade meetings; and provided leadership in regional cooperation at ASEAN in 2011, and at APEC. Before becoming Minister, from 1987 to 2003, she provided policy advice on international trade and investment issues, political economy of reforms, and sustainable development issues.

She is currently Professor of International Economics at the Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia and is on the Board of Directors of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Indonesia’s leading think tank.


Singapore has recently become one of the richest countries in the world. But the recent National Workplace Happiness Survey 2014 found that Singapore's overall workplace happiness index falls within the band of "Under Happy", between "Unhappy" and "Happy". Is this due to the income inequality which is increasingly becoming a concern in our nation?

Positive psychology has revealed many keys to happiness for individuals: strong relationships of trust and love, engagement with work that allows people to use their strengths, and a sense of purpose and connection to something larger than themselves. Experts are now turning their attention ever more to questions of flourishing societies. What kinds of economic, moral, and social systems lead to flourishing? Why are some countries happier, or less happy, than we would expect from their wealth?

A highly sought-after speaker worldwide, Professor Jonathan Haidt will explore the findings of positive psychology and then discuss the ways that societies generally promote human flourishing. Join us as he shares his insights on how to achieved a life well-lived.


Jonathan Haidt is the Thomas Cooley Professor of Ethical Leadership at New York University’s Stern School of Business. He received his BA from Yale University in 1985 and his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1992. He then did post-doctoral research at the University of Chicago and in Orissa, India. He was a professor at the University of Virginia from 1995 until 2011, when he joined the Stern School of Business. His research focuses on morality – its emotional foundations, cultural variations, and developmental course. He began his career studying the negative moral emotions, such as disgust, shame, and vengeance, but then moved on to the understudied positive moral emotions, such as admiration, awe, and moral elevation. This work got him involved with the field of positive psychology, in which he has been a leading researcher.

He is the co-developer of Moral Foundations theory, and of the research site, YourMorals.org. He uses his research to help people understand and respect the moral motives of their enemies (see CivilPolitics.org). He won three teaching awards from the University of Virginia, and one from the governor of Virginia. His three TED talks on political psychology, on religion, and on the causes of America’s political polarization have been viewed more than 3 million times. He was named a “top 100 global thinker” of 2012 by Foreign Policy magazine, and one of the 65 “World Thinkers of 2013″ by Prospect magazine. He is the author of more than 90 academic articles and two books: The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom, and the New York Times bestseller The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion.


Fast forward five years from the global financial crisis which saw trillions of dollars in paper losses, the European economy is facing a sluggish recovery with increased youth unemployment and diminished business confidence.

Reviving the European economy remains a foremost objective of the European Council. The G20 is also moving to address the global growth challenge in an ambitious and meaningful way.

As the first full-time President of the European Council, H.E. Herman Van Rompuy was in the centre of the deliberations on political measures and bailout programmes to combat the crisis.

Join us as he shares his perspectives on how Europe should deal with the current financial challenges, the impact that the European economy has on Asia and the key moments as the first full-time President of the European Council.


Elected as the first full-time President of the European Council in November 2009, Herman Van Rompuy took office when the Lisbon Treaty came into force on 1 December 2009. In 2012, he was re-elected for a second term starting on 1 June 2012 and running until 30 November 2014. At the time of his first election, Herman Van Rompuy was Prime Minister of Belgium. Prior to that he had served in Belgium as Speaker of the House of Representatives (2007-2008) and in several government positions, including as Vice-Prime Minister and Minister of Budget (1993-1999), Minister of State (2004) and Secretary of State for Finance and Small Businesses (1988).

A former economist at the National Bank of Belgium, Herman Van Rompuy began his political career in 1973 as national vice-president of his party's youth council. He has held various responsibilities within his party and in the Belgian Parliament, serving in turn as Senator (1988-1995) and Member of Parliament (1995-2009).

Herman Van Rompuy holds a Bachelor in Philosophy, and a Master in Applied Economics from the university K.U. Leuven. He was born in Etterbeek, Belgium, on 31 October 1947 and is married to Geertrui Windels. They have four children and four grandchildren.


How has leadership changed in today's networked world? Leaders need to understand and embrace the new leadership imperatives to stay ahead.

Join Rosabeth Moss Kanter as she shares her insider perspectives on the secrets of success from Fortune 500 companies like IBM, P&G, General Electric, Volvo, Gap Inc and Honeywell.

Learn the illuminating object lessons on what works and what doesn't, on the precarious, often uncharted terrain of e-commerce.

Author of 19 best-selling books, Professor Kanter has been named among the "50 most powerful women in the world" (Times of London), and the "50 most influential business thinkers in the world" (Thinkers 50).


Rosabeth Moss Kanter holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship at Harvard Business School, where she specializes in strategy, innovation, and leadership for change. She is also Chair and Director of the Harvard University Advanced Leadership Initiative, an innovation that helps successful leaders at the top of their professions apply their skills to national and global challenges in their next life stage.

Her strategic and practical insights guide leaders of large and small organizations worldwide, through her teaching, writing, and direct consultation to major corporations and governments The former chief Editor of Harvard Business Review, Professor Kanter has been repeatedly named to lists of the "50 most powerful women in the world" (Times of London), and the "50 most influential business thinkers in the world" (Thinkers 50). She has received 24 honorary doctoral degrees, as well as numerous leadership awards, lifetime achievement awards, and prizes. These include the World Teleport Association's "Intelligent Community Visionary of the Year" award; the International Leadership Award from the Association of Leadership Professionals; and the Warren Bennis Award for Leadership Excellence. She is the author or co-author of 19 books.

Her book The Change Masters was named one of the most influential business books of the 20th century (Financial Times). SuperCorp: How Vanguard Companies Create Innovation, Profits, Growth, and Social Good, a manifesto for leadership of sustainable enterprises, was named one of the ten best business books of 2009 by Amazon.com. A related article, "How Great Companies Think Differently," received Harvard Business Review's 2011 McKinsey Award for the year's two best articles. Confidence: How Winning Streaks & Losing Streaks Begin & End (a New York Times business bestseller and #1 Business Week bestseller), describes the culture of high-performance organizations compared with those in decline and shows how to lead turnarounds, whether in businesses, schools, sports teams, or countries.

Men & Women of the Corporation, winner of the C. Wright Mills award for the best book on social issues and called a classic, offers insight into the individual and organizational factors that promote success or perpetuate disadvantage; a spin-off video, A Tale of 'O': On Being Different, is a widely-used tool for diversity training. A related book, Work & Family in the United States, set a policy agenda; later, a coalition of university centers created in her honor the Rosabeth Moss Kanter Award for the best research on work/family issues. Another award-winning book, When Giants Learn to Dance, showed how to master the new terms of competition at the dawn of the global information age.

Through her consulting arm, Goodmeasure Inc., she advises numerous CEOs and has partnered with IBM on applying her leadership tools from business to other sectors as a Senior Advisor for IBM's Global Citizenship portfolio. She has served on many business and non-profit boards, such as City Year, the urban "Peace Corps" addressing the school dropout crisis through national service, and on a variety of national or regional commissions including the Governor's Council of Economic Advisors. She speaks widely, often sharing the platform with Presidents, Prime Ministers, and CEOs at national and international events, such as the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Before joining the Harvard Business School faculty, she held tenured professorships at Yale University and Brandeis University and was a Fellow at Harvard Law School, simultaneously holding a Guggenheim Fellowship. Her Ph.D. is from the University of Michigan.


Since the global financial crisis of 2007-2008, emerging countries of Asia, led by China and India, helped to keep the global economy afloat, compensating for the sluggish performance of the US, EU and Japan. In the last couple of years, however, the growth momentum of China and India has slowed while the U.S. and the EU showed signs of recovery, albeit at a hesitant pace. Since December 2012, Japan has launched an ambitious 3-pronged revitalization program resulting in a weakened Yen and some signs of recovery.

In view of the reviving American economy accompanied by a reduction of its unemployment rate to 6.3%, the Federal Reserve has been tapering its QE program. This has led to a rise in U.S. interest rates, resulting in an outflow of funds from Asia and other emerging countries. Exchange rates in the region have tumbled, prompting fears of a financial meltdown. How should Asian countries respond to the changing global economic landscape?

Join Robert Zoellick as he shares his insights on these issues and more.



Robert B. Zoellick is a Senior Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.

He served as the 11th President of the World Bank from 2007-2012. Mr Zoellick turned around an institution in trouble, recapitalized the Bank, and expanded financing for developing countries during the food, fuel, and financial crises. He modernized the Bank by making it more accountable, flexible, fast-moving, transparent, and focused on good governance and anti-corruption. He has increased representation of developing countries in governance and staffing and encouraged developing countries to set their own priorities rather than have them dictated from the Bank. His record has also been marked by an increased role for the private sector through the Bank’s International Finance Corporation, which under his leadership has boosted business, expanded equity investments, mobilized more co-investments, and recruited sovereign wealth funds and pension funds to invest in poor countries, especially in Africa.

Before his term at the Bank, Mr Zoellick served as Vice Chairman, International, of the Goldman Sachs Group as well as Managing Director and Chairman of Goldman Sachs’ Board of International Advisors from 2006-2007. Previously, he was Deputy Secretary of State in 2005-2006, where he was Chief Operating Officer and led China policy. Mr Zoellick was a member of the President’s Cabinet as U.S. Trade Representative from 2001-2005, where he revitalized America’s free trade agenda, increasing U.S. FTAs fivefold.


From 1985-1993, Zoellick served at the Treasury and State Departments in various posts, as well as White House Deputy Chief of Staff. He was the lead U.S. official in the “Two-Plus-Four” process of German unification in 1989-90 and served as the President’s “Sherpa” for the preparation of the G7/8 Economic Summits in 1991-1992.

Mr Zoellick graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Swarthmore College in 1975. He earned a J.D. magna cum laude from the Harvard Law School and a MPP from the Kennedy School of Government in 1981. He lived in Hong Kong on a fellowship in 1980.

Mr Zoellick received decorations from the German, Mexican, and Chilean governments; the Ludwig Erhard Gold Medal for Economics, the Australian-American Leadership award; the Alexander Hamilton and Distinguished Service Awards, the highest honors of the Departments of Treasury and State, respectively; the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service; and Honorary Doctorates from RAND’s Graduate School of Public Policy and St. Joseph’s College in Rensselaer, Indiana.

Mr Zoellick grew up in Naperville, Illinois.


Political order is based on a balance between three sets of institutions: the state, which concentrates and uses power, the rule of law, which constrains the state through transparent rules, and democratic accountability, which ensures that governments are responsive to the needs of the whole community.

Drawing from his last book, The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution, Dr Fukuyama will provide an overview of how these three institutions came into being in China, the West, and other parts of the world, and will discuss the implications of these historical trends for present-day world politics.

Join Dr Fukuyama as he shares his insights on these issues and more.



Francis Fukuyama is Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI), resident in FSI's Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. He is professor (by courtesy) of political science.

Dr Fukuyama has written widely on issues in development and international politics. His book, The End of History and the Last Man, was published by Free Press in 1992 and has appeared in over twenty foreign editions. His most recent book, The Origins of Political Order, was published in April 2011; the companion volume Political Order and Political Decay will be published in 2014. Other books include America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy, Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution, and Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity.

Francis Fukuyama received his B.A. from Cornell University in classics, and his Ph.D. from Harvard in Political Science. He was a member of the Political Science Department of the RAND Corporation, and of the Policy Planning Staff of the US Department of State. He previously taught at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of Johns Hopkins University and at George Mason University's School of Public Policy. He served as a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001-2004.

Dr Fukuyama is chairman of the editorial board of The American Interest, which he helped to found in 2005. He is a senior fellow at the Johns Hopkins SAIS Foreign Policy Institute, and a non-resident fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Center for Global Development. He holds honorary doctorates from Connecticut College, Doane College, Doshisha University (Japan), Kansai University (Japan), Aarhus University (Denmark), and the Pardee Rand Graduate School. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Rand Corporation, the Board of Directors of the National Endowment for Democracy, and member of the advisory boards for the Journal of Democracy, the Inter-American Dialogue, and The New America Foundation. He is a member of the American Political Science Association, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Pacific Council for International Affairs. He is married to Laura Holmgren and has three children.


Medicine is not a science but an evolving art. Science supports it through a proven history of rigorous and replicated observations. The practice of management has yet not reached this stage of evolution. Rather, management today presents a collection of competing models and opinions which strains for credibility in our dramatically changing world.

Dr Flores will provide fundamental observations about how human beings create actions and possibilities.

He will introduce a powerful ontology of language which will lead us to see the coordination of action, cultivation of public identity, design and management of moods, and development of alliances, networks and trust in a new and different way.

Dr Flores will share historical and present day examples to point the way for our successful education and action in the future.



Dr Fernando Flores was formerly Minister of Finance of Chile, and recently completed his terms as a Senator and as President of the National Council on Innovation for Competitiveness. The Council’s recent report, “Surfing Towards the Future: Strategic Orientations for Innovation” was hailed by the Wall Street Journal as highly relevant to both advanced and emerging economies.

Dr Flores is an entrepreneur, pioneer of workflow software, owner of numerous patents on the action/language approach to software design, author of many books and articles, and cited in over 4000 publications. He is regarded as a world leading expert on innovation, education, and how work gets done and trust created in our pluralistic and dramatically changing world.

Dr Flores’ management breakthroughs led to the establishment of Logonet (an educational corporation), Action Technologies (a software corporation), Business Design Associates, Inc. (an international consulting company) and Pluralistic Networks, a company providing gaming-enabled, online and mentor-guided, global education. Dr Flores obtained his PhD from UC Berkeley. His dissertation, “Communication and Management in the Office of the Future”, became the foundation of much of his later work.

Dr Flores is visiting Singapore to explore issues and opportunities, and to seek allies, ideas, and partners – in Singapore and beyond – for the expansion of his current work on innovation and global education. Flores’ interests include the creation of sustainable competitive advantage for talent, alliances, investment and reputation, with increasingly broad political and social participation in a shared social ethos of partnership and trust. In the field of education, Flores sees current and future avalanches of change that must be met with innovations combining online courseware and gaming-enabled curriculum with mentoring for the cultivation of wisdom, values, and ambition across generations in our constantly changing and pluralistic world.


Under the aegis of the previous generation of leaders, China has been propelled onto the global arena to become the world’s second biggest economy in just over 30 years.

Despite experiencing an economic slowdown over the last couple of years, the country has become the world’s largest manufacturer and exporter of cars, holds the world’s largest foreign exchange reserves and has developed the key cities of Beijing and Shanghai into the world’s leading business, economic and financial hubs today.

With the handover of power, the new generation of leaders is seen to be collectively more cosmopolitan in their world-views and policy choices than the preceding generations. Many perceive that they will shift the country’s growth model towards efficiency, quality and sustainability by relying on enlarging domestic demand as well as science and technological innovation.

How will these anticipated economic, political and social policies, both national and global, affect the country, the region and the rest of the world?

What roles will China’s leading universities have in the country’s new growth blueprint? Can these universities become strategic assets to China by addressing the problems of its society through comprehensive research and advanced innovations?

These issues and more will be discussed by Professor Zhang Jie.





Professor Zhang Jie took office as the 39th President of Shanghai Jiao Tong University on November 27, 2006, being the youngest President of the institution since 1949. With a shining history of more than 114 years, Shanghai Jiao Tong University is one of the premier Chinese institutions of higher education with the strategic goal of becoming a world-class university.

Professor Zhang got his Ph.D. in Optical and Atomic & Molecular Physics from the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in 1988. Then he spent 10 years at the University of Oxford, UK, carrying out research on x-ray lasers and laser-plasma physics.

Prior to his appointment as President of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Professor Zhang had consecutively held positions as Director of various institutes of CAS. His academic achievements were recognized by numerous international organizations and awards. He has also been an Alternate Member of the Central Committee of Chinese Communist Party since 2007.

Professor Zhang believes that the national strategy of reviving China by means of science and education as well as the surging Chinese economy have created a social and political demand for world-class universities in China.




In this context, institutions, whose presence is usually taken for granted in developed economies, range from intermediaries that facilitate transactions and broker information to bodies that govern regulation and adjudication, enforcing contracts, property rights and the rule of law. When these supporting institutions do not exist, this is what is known as an "institutional void".

Few would deny that emerging markets are engines of growth, against the backdrop of gloomy economies like that of US, Europe and Japan. In a recent report published by Deloitte on emerging markets, about 60 percent of the polled organisations have emerging market revenues today – signalling that emerging markets are an integral part of an organisation’s strategy. However, tried and tested methods cannot work like a cookie cutter in emerging markets and even giants like Apple, McDonalds and many others have tripped over themselves in the process of entering the emerging markets. Organisations need new sets of strategies, insights and assumptions – the compass to their new routes of success.

In his book, Winning in Emerging Markets: A Road Map for Strategy and Execution, Prof Tarun Khanna and his co-author discuss how some organisations have successfully found the compass and navigated their way around institutional voids present in the emerging markets. The common traits in these successful organisations is their adaptability and their ability to understand the local markets.

While many are getting familiar with markets like China and India, a sense of doubt and unfamiliarity lingers over other markets like Myanmar, Vietnam, Russia, South Africa and Latin America. How then should companies approach these economies? Can they replicate their emerging market strategies applied in China and India? How do they stay profitable and competitive while managing the risks of market volatility and rapid changes in the global business landscape?

Join Prof Khanna as he shares his views on issues pertaining to the emerging markets.





Tarun Khanna is the Director of the Harvard University South Asia Institute, and the Jorge Paulo Lemann Professor at the Harvard Business School, where he has studied and worked with multinational and indigenous companies and investors in emerging markets worldwide. He joined the HBS faculty in 1993, after obtaining an engineering degree from Princeton University (1988) and a Ph.D. from Harvard (1993), and an interim stint on Wall Street.

During this time, he has served as the head of several courses on strategy, corporate governance, and international business targeted to MBA students and senior executives at Harvard. He currently teaches in Harvard College’s GenEd (General Education ‘core’ curriculum), in an elective course on entrepreneurship in South Asia in several of Harvard’s professional schools. He chairs Harvard Business School’s activities in India and South Asia, and is a member of the University’s Asia Center steering committee. In 2007, he was nominated to be a Young Global Leader (under 40) by the World Economic Forum. In 2009, he was elected a Fellow of the Academy of International Business.

His book, Billions of Entrepreneurs: How China and India are Reshaping Their Futures and Yours, was published in February 2008 by Harvard Business Press (Penguin in South Asia), and has been translated into several languages. It focuses on the drivers of entrepreneurship in China and India and builds on two decades of work with companies, investors and non-profits in developing countries worldwide.

His most recent co-authored book, Winning in Emerging Markets: A Roadmap for Strategy and Execution, was published by Harvard Business Press in March 2010 and is also available in Chinese, Portuguese and Japanese.




There is no doubt about it – Indonesia is doing well. With strong domestic consumption making up nearly 55 per cent of the economy, a GDP growth rate of about 6 per cent, and an increase in foreign direct investment of 22 per cent in the last quarter of 2012, Indonesia is a rising star. Its GDP has exceeded US$1 trillion, demonstrating to the world its resilience, and that it is ready to punch above its weight.

With one of the youngest demographics of productive population, Indonesia is positioned to follow the growth model of low-cost labour and growing middle class, similar to the earlier paths taken by China and India. However, with the slowing down in the economies of these two countries in the recent years, it will be more challenging now, than ever, to court overseas investors into Indonesia.

What then is the rest of the world missing out on? Is it too late for companies to ride on Indonesia’s expected economic wave? What is the Indonesian government doing to ensure that this komodo economy does not take a nasty bite off overseas investors?

Are there any precautions that are necessary for Indonesia to undertake to assure its investors? What can be done to attract and retain foreign investments in the country?

Join Indonesia’s Trade Minister Pak Gita Wirjawan as he shares his views on these issues.



Gita Wirjawan (born in 1965) has been the Minister of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia since October 2011. Prior to this appointment, he was the Chairman of Indonesia Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM), the major interface between the Indonesian government and business. Prior to his appointment to BKPM, the investment banker founded and served as Chairman of Ancora Capital, a private equity fund based in Jakarta.

Additionally, he worked for JPMorgan and Goldman Sachs in Southeast Asia. Gita Wirjawan was educated at the University of Texas as well as Baylor University, Texas, and graduated from Harvard Kennedy School with a Master in public administration.



  “ The world has changed, our theories have not. ”

        Dan Breznitz


In his talk, based on his new book Run of the Red Queen: Government, Innovation, Globalization and Economic Growth in China, Professor Breznitz will tackle the question of China’s high-technology skills and innovative prowess head-on.

Ever since China surpassed Japan as the world’s second largest economy, the hype surrounding China’s technological prowess considers China either as a threatening success or else an exaggerated and hollow failure. Neither perspective is correct and indeed these understandings of China’s innovation system stem from a faulty understanding of the global economy and China’s role in it.



Dan (Danny) Breznitz, is an Associate Professor at Georgia Institute of Technology’s Sam Nunn School of International Affairs and The College of Management, and is an Associate Professor by courtesy at the School of Public Policy. He finished his PhD at MIT. Breznitz has extensive experience in conducting comparative in-depth research of Rapid-Innovation-Based Industries and their globalization.

Dr. Breznitz’s first book, Innovation and the State: Political Choice and Strategies for Growth in Israel, Taiwan, and Ireland (Yale University Press), won the 2008 Don K. Price for best book on Science and Technology given by APSA and was a finalist for the 2007 best book of the year award in political science by ForeWord Magazine.

His second book (co-authored with Michael Murphree) Run of the Red Queen: Government, Innovation, Globalization, and Economic Growth in China has just been published by Yale University Press. In addition, his work was published in various journals and edited volumes.

Breznitz is one of five young North American scholars to be selected as a 2008 Industry Study Fellow of the Sloan Foundation.



  “ The Indonesian Garuda is rising but the wings are underpowered ”

        Presidential Distinguished Lecturer Series : Garuda Rising, Black Swan Waiting: Economic and Political Futures of Indonesia (6 June 2011)


Having weathered the American Financial Crisis of 2008 relatively unscathed, Indonesia is doing well economically. Alongside an expected annual GDP growth of at least six percent in 2011 and 2012, exports have risen while unemployment has declined. Inflows of FDI have increased sharply as investment advisers have included Indonesia in emerging-market coinages such as MIST, CIVETS, and the “Next Eleven.”

Indonesian politics are stable. Occasional instances of religious bigotry and terrorist intent are notable not as omens of greater turmoil to come, but as outliers unlikely to reverse established habits of peaceful accommodation.

Radical Islamism is politically unpopular. Papuan resentments continue but appear containable. Corruption is endemic but not catastrophic. Exceptions to civilian control of the military are few. Democracy is becoming—some say it has become—“the only game in town.”

Drawing on his research on and experience in Indonesia, Professor Emmerson will assess the arc of the garuda as she tries to fly still higher and farther. He will also discuss the chance that a black swan – an unexpected but consequential future event – may be waiting for the time to arrive when it will thwart Indonesia’s trajectory of success.



Emmerson is the director of Southeast Asia Forum in Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center Stanford University. Since joining Stanford in 1999, he has taken part in various working groups on U.S.-Asian relations including a SEAF-cosponsored National Commission on U.S.-Indonesian Relations. The Commission's report led to Congressional hearings and an executive-branch initiative to assist Indonesian education. Emmerson has also testified before Congress on Asian affairs on several occasions.

Emmerson was honored by the National Bureau of Asian Research and the Woodow Wilson International Center for Scholars with a two-year research associateship awarded to “top scholars from across the United States” who “have successfully bridged the gap between the academy and policy.”

In 2011 he joined other specialists in Canberra at a conference to examine the foreign policy of democratic Indonesia. In 2010 he advised Appleseed Entertainment on the filming of a documentary on Indonesian democracy. His research interests include Southeast Asia; ASEAN; Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore; Islamism; the Muslim world; regionalism; democratization; U.S. foreign policy; and the sociology of scholarly knowledge.

Emmerson has a PhD in political science from Yale University and a BA in international affairs from Princeton University. His doctoral dissertation was published as Indonesia’s Elite: Political Culture and Cultural Politics. Read More (Appendix 1)



  “Pick something that could get you into trouble because no one
    believes it.”

        Presidential Distinguished Lecturer Series : Swimming Against the Current: Challenges on the Way to Scientific Discovery (7 Oct 2008)


Basic research is rarely a straight path to discovery. It usually takes many twists and turns over the course of a career. When one is trying to translate basic research into clinical practice, especially if working outside established paradigms and challenging received opinion, especially in the early stages of a career, this task becomes even more political and complex.

Dr Stein's talk presented a broad overview of the ups and downs and ins and outs of the investigative process that took almost three decades to bring a simple, safe and effective treatment for traumatic brain injury and possibly other Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders from the laboratory bench to the patient's bedside.

There were many social, political, economic and, scientific issues that presented themselves along the way. The trajectory was frustrating, exciting, sometimes depressing and almost always fulfilling because the challenge always provided focus, direction and a sense of purpose.

With the benefit of hindsight, Professor Stein believes that the long course of this research effort can serve as an example of what makes a research and teaching career as gratifying as it can and should be.



Donald G. Stein, Ph.D., is a physiological psychologist and Asa G. Candler Professor in Emergency Medicine at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. Before returning to full-time teaching and research, he served Emory for five years as Vice Provost for Graduate Studies, Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and interim Vice President for Research. Dr. Stein was Vice Provost for Research and Dean of the Graduate School at Rutgers University, Newark from 1988-1995, and adjunct professor of Neurology at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.

Dr Stein’s research focused on the recovery of the brain function after a traumatic injury. Contrary to general beliefs, his laboratory led the research which showed that particular parts of the brain can still function after certain “critical” structures of the brain are removed. This work led to renewed studies which demonstrated that recovery can be induced in brain damaged adults.

Dr Stein’s lab was the first to show that there are different outcomes experienced by the male and female when there are severe injuries at the front of the head (the frontal cortex). The rate of recovery was related to the hormonal state of the females during the time of the injury. Later investigations by the lab showed that hormones played a key role in promoting functional recovery, through the ability of the hormones to eliminate water in the brain (cerebral edema).

Dr. Stein is the author of over 400 articles, book chapters, reviews and papers on the subject of recovery from brain injury. He has also authored or edited 16 books on the topic and has lectured at institutions around the world. Brain Repair (Oxford University Press, 1995) has now been published in five languages



  “A human right sustainability check should be introduced.”

        Presidential Distinguished Lecturer Series :
        Governing for Sustainability - A Hungarian Perspective on Climate Change, Environment and Responsibility for Future Generations (23 May 2008)


Twenty years ago a complete overhaul of the political, legal, and institutional system took place in Hungary. The debates on pressing local and international environmental issues also left their mark on the spirit and the letter of the new Constitution: the right to a healthy environment was established. As new investments are being poured into buildings and roads, civil groups and academics argue for the need to make the rapid development sustainable and to preserve the important ecosystems.

Based on the outcome of recent studies, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has already warned about the high sensitivity of the country to the consequences of climate change.

Taking a long-term perspective, the Hungarian Parliament recently passed a law establishing the independent position of the "Speaker for Future Generations”.

It is hoped that these legal and institutional measures will support the realisation of the ambitious new initiatives of the European Union that intend to turn the production and consumption in Europe into a low-carbon, resource-saving, fair and sustainable direction. The public knows that pollution and environmental degradation respect no boundaries and burden future generations. All members of the United Nations need to participate in the creation of an international system of stakeholders which is capable of delivering long-term solutions to the challenge of sustainability.



László Sólyom was born on 3rd January 1942 in Pécs. He graduated from the Faculty of Political and Legal Sciences of the University of Pécs in 1965 and the same year also qualified as a librarian in the National Széchényi Library.

Since the early 1980s he has been a legal advisor to civil and environmental movements, and has been a member of Duna Kör (Danube Circle). In 1988 and 1989 he was member of various civil organisations which played a significant role in the transition to democracy (e.g. Nyilvánosság Klub [Club for Freedom of the Press] and Független Jogász Fórum [Independent Lawyers' Forum]). He was a founding member of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) and a member of its presidency between March 1989 and November 1990.

He attended the sessions of the Opposition Roundtable on behalf of MDF and participated in the National Roundtable Negotiations in 1990.

On 24th November 1989 Parliament elected him a judge to the newly established Constitutional Court. He was deputy president of the Contitutional Court until summer 1990 and was elected by his peers president of the Constitutional Court three times between 1990 and 1998, a position he held until the end of his mandate.

The National Assembly of Hungary elected László Sólyom President of the Republic on 7th June 2005.



  “Information Technologies have introduced new pedagogical tools.”

        International Presidential Forum on Global Research Universities : Borderless and Creative Education (8 Nov 2011)


Research universities are performing important roles in many industrialized nations. In addition to advancing knowledge and generating outstanding graduates, they are expected to become an engine for economic development for their region through creation of new technologies and industries based on their basic and applied research.

However, the creation of outstanding research universities has not been easy and in many cases, has not been successful notwithstanding major investments made in numerous regions and countries

As a consequence and thanks to the availability of instant communications and easy travel, it is expected that a limited number of successful research universities will dominate many fields of science, engineering, and management throughout the world.

As many Asian universities strive to become leading research universities in the world, there is a need to understand the issues that are country specific as well as global that affect the successful establishment of research universities. The case of KAIST will be reviewed to illustrate the challenges and opportunities of a research university in the 21st century.



Dr. Suh, Nam Pyo is the President of Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), a position he assumed since 13 July 2006. During his tenure, Dr Suh invented two large-scale systems, the On-Line Electric Vehicle (OLEV) and the Mobile Harbor, of which the OLEV was selected as one of the 50 Best Inventions of 2010 by TIME. Under his leadership, KAIST received the highest award from the President of Korea for its contributions.

Dr Suh began his career at MIT in 1970, where he was the Ralph E. & Eloise F. Cross Professor, Director of the Park Center for Complex Systems (formerly the Manufacturing Institute), and the Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering for ten years from 1991 to 2001. He was also the Founding Director of the MIT Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity (1977–1984), the Founder and Director of the MIT-Industry Polymer Processing Program (1973–1984), Head of the Mechanics and Material Division of the Mechanical Engineering Department (1975-1977), and a member of the Engineering Council of MIT (1980–1984 and 1991–2001).

In October 1984, Suh took a leave of absence from MIT to accept a Presidential Appointment at the National Science Foundation where he was in charge of engineering. President Ronald Reagan appointed him to this position and the U.S. Senate confirmed his appointment. During his tenure at NSF, he created a new direction for the Engineering Directorate and introduced a new organizational program structure for supporting engineering research in order to strengthen engineering education and research and "to insure that the United States will occupy a leadership position in engineering well into the 21st century."

Dr Suh also created the axiomatic design theory, which is a systems design methodology using matrix methods to systematically analyze the transformation of customer needs into functional requirements, design parameters, and process variables.



  “There is a need to expose the emptiness of emptiness.”

         Varady, Hungary review article- Tibor Populism and Unmasking

  “Angels in Heaven Speak Hungarian.”

         Gyula Kodolányi, Hungary review article- The angel’s son why I learned Hungarian late in life


Since the break between Tito and Stalin in 1948, Yugoslavia became the most open and most Western-oriented among communist countries. Its ties with the West became gradually stronger and stronger, and its economy became a mixed economy including market elements. It was generally expected that Yugoslavia could be the first country to join European integrations. This is not what happened. Yugoslavia ruined this position at the time when communism was collapsing towards the end of the eighties. Communist leaders became extreme nationalists, and this fact became an unbearable predicament in a multi - ethnic state. The result of ethnic intolerance was the dissolution of Yugoslavia.

In contrast, Hungary was in the forefront of the transitions in East Central Europe. During the peaceful long revolution of 1988-89, the democratic opposition laid the groundwork for parliamentary democracy and negotiated the conditions and guarantees of constitutional change with the ruling Communist party.

The first democratic government of centre right József Antall (1990-1993) created the legal structure of civil rights and the institutions of a market economy. It made bold steps toward Hungary's eventual entry into NATO and the European Union. It also created opportunities for a new national middle class.

Both are emerging economies in Eastern Europe watched closely by the world. Yet Yugoslavia and Hungary chose contrasting paths in their journey towards democracy, modernization and globalization. Join prominent Hungarians, Professor Tibor Varady and Mr Gyula Kodolányi as they unravel the historical and political web behind these two Eastern European neighbours.



Tibor Varady


Former Minister of Justice of Yugoslavia in the Panic government from June 1992 to March 1993, Professor Tibor Varady is an internationally-recognized scholar and expert on international trade, commercial transactions and dispute settlement. He was on the faculty of the Novi Sad Law School in the former Yugoslavia and served as director of its Center for International Studies for many years.

Since July 1993, Professor Varady has been a professor in the Legal Studies Department of the Central European University in Budapest and chairman of the International Business Law Program. He is a member of the Hague Permanent Court of Arbitration and is on the list of arbitrators of eight arbitral institutions, including institutions in the former Yugoslavia, in Hungary and in Egypt.

Professor Varady also acted as agent and counsel in 11 cases before the International Court of Justice.

Professor Varady has written more than 200 publications in five languages. His most recent publications include: International Commercial Arbitration (with co-authors J. Barcelo and A. Von Mehren) 3d Edition Thomson & West 2006; Language and Translation in International Commercial Arbitration, T.M.C. Asser Press 2006.

Professor Varady was appointed as a professor at Emory Law in 1999 and teaches spring courses on international commercial arbitration and international business transactions.


Gyula Kodolányi


Gyula Kodolányi is the author of several collections of poetry, essays and translations. His first collection of poetry, The Sea and the Wind Endlessly, published in 1981, was awarded the Mikes Kelemen Prize for best book of the year by Hungarian writers in exile.

Kodolányi has played a significant role in Hungarian politics since the late 1970s. As a poet and professor of English and American literature, he was drawn at that time into the growing Hungarian opposition.

He was a founding member of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) in 1987, which won parliamentary elections three years later and formed Hungary’s first democratic government since 1948.

He served as Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to Prime Ministers József Antall and Péter Boross in 1990-94, on U.S. and European relations, with a special focus on NATO integration. Since that time, he has continued both his political and his poetic activities, advising former Hungarian President Ferenc Mádl, and editing a political and intellectual bimonthly, Magyar Szemle in Budapest.


  “One must know how to operate in an environment where ambiguity
    is the norm.”

        Knowledge@Wharton article : From Recession to Recovery – A Focus on Higher Productivity, New Partnerships, Cost Competitiveness


A curious phenomenon occurs in global markets today: technology is often considerably in front of the ability of companies to develop successful applications. This phenomenon is found in industries as diverse as health sciences, information technology, consumer entertainment, industrial automation, and financial services.

The need to achieve rapid take-off and diffusion for new products and services is a central concern of CEOs and CMOs. Slow take-off delays return on R&D investments, allows competitive entry, and hinders the development of consumer loyalty to brands and standards.

New research provides guidelines for meeting rapid take-off objectives. Next practice ideas include a focus on the application alternatives rather than the technology; the need to pre-announce to customers; the value of partnering and creating alliances to create the dominant standard and to leverage network effects; and the need to manage the customer's adoption process. These next practice ideas will be illustrated with examples from recent research with major global corporations.



Professor Thomas S. Robertson is currently the Dean of the Wharton School and Reliance Professor of Management and Private Enterprise at the University of Pennsylvania since August 2007.

Robertson comes from Emory University where he was executive faculty director of the Institute for Developing Nations. He was dean of the Goizueta Business School at Emory University from 1998-2004, and is widely credited with building Goizueta into one of the strongest schools at Emory, positioning it as a leading international business school.

An expert in marketing strategy and innovation with extensive international experience in higher education and the business community, Robertson most recently led various internationalization efforts at Emory. He developed and implemented a university-wide plan for internationalization, and he created and launched the Institute for Developing Nations, a joint research initiative with The Carter Center.

He led Goizueta into an unprecedented era of growth, increasing the size of the faculty by 73 percent, doubling revenues, and nearly doubling the endowment. He also developed new international alliances for the school, spurred major growth in executive-education programs, added a major new building, and launched a new PhD program.

In 1971 to 1994, he was Pomerantz Professor of Marketing and Chair of the Marketing Department. As Associate Dean for Executive Education, he led the effort to build the Steinberg Conference Center, designed an innovative set of new senior-management programs, and substantially increased financial contributions.

An expert in marketing strategy and competitive behavior, the diffusion of innovation, and consumer behavior, Robertson is author, co-author, or editor of a dozen books and almost 100 scholarly articles and book chapters.


  “Insufficient emphasize of ethics in impedes the growth of society.”

        Journal of Business Ethics - Integrating Ethics into the Business School Curriculum


Prof Robertson discussed about the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility. How corporate social responsibility vary by the region and by industry or does the size of the firm matters. Corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, triple bottom line, sustainability and value creation, which rhetoric make the most sense.

Prof Robertson also presented the examples of the best practice in corporate social responsibility, what should an enlightened corporation look like and corporate social responsibility contribution to the bottom line.

Firms are increasingly recoginsing that corporate social responsibility is an integral and key part of corporate strategy and are able to formulate initiatives that meet their financial needs, as well as responding to societal needs.



Dr Diana Robertson is currently a Professor of Legal Studies and Business Ethics at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Previously she was Professor of Organization and Management at the Goizueta Business School, Emory University, Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior at London Business School, and Assistant Professor of Legal Studies at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

Diana’s research interests center on business ethics and corporate social responsibility. Her work examines how organizations influence the ethical behavior of employees through organizational structure, pressure to perform, and compensation and control systems. Further research has investigated various forms of corporate social responsibility in both developed and developing economies.

Diana has also conducted research using neuroimaging technology to identify neural activations in the brain associated with sensitivity to moral issues.

Diana had consulted to corporations on business ethics and is currently on the academic advisory board of the Business Roundtable Institute of Corporate Ethics.

Diana’s work had been published in Organization Science, Business Ethics Quarterly, Journal of Business Ethics, Human Relations, Journal of International Business Studies, Sloan Management Review, Journal of Marketing, and Neuropsychologia.


  “Martin Luther of modern Islam.”

        Berkley Center, Religion, Peace, World Affairs. Georgetown University


The protection of human rights is now more necessary than ever before precisely because of the serious challenges they are facing since 9/11. Secularism can play critical role in responding to these challenges provided this principle is seen as balancing the institutional separation of religion and the state with ensuring a positive public role for religion.

The lecture will discuss these propositions in relation to Muslims and Islamic societies, but emphasis is that the same approach must be applied to all religious traditions. Regarding Islamic societies, the speaker’s position is that an Islamic state to enforce Shari’ah principles as positive law or public policy is neither possible nor desirable, though those principles should remain a source of law and policy subject to constitutional human rights safeguards.



Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im is a world-renowned scholar of Islam and human rights.

He is the Charles Howard Candler Professor of Law at Emory Law, Associate Professor in the Emory College of Arts and Sciences and faculty affiliate at the Emory University Center for Ethics. Professor An-Na'im teaches courses in international law, comparative law, human rights and Islamic law.

Professor Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na`im has received two major awards for his dedication to human rights: the 2011 Lifetime Achievement Award by the Journal of Law and Religion and the 2011 Johnson Medal by the James Weldon Johnson Institute for the Study of Race and Difference at Emory University.

His research interests include constitutionalism in Islamic and African countries, secularism, and Islam and politics. Professor An-Na'im directed the Women and Land in Africa, Islamic Family Law, and Fellowship Program in Islam and Human Rights research projects which focus on advocacy strategies for reform through internal cultural transformation.

Professor An-Na'im's current research projects include a study of American Muslims and the secular state, and of human rights, universality and sovereignty. He continues to further develop his theory of Islam and the Secular State (Harvard University Press, 2008), also published in Arabic and Indonesian.


Mr Kgalema Motlanthe currently serves as Chair of the High Level Panel on the Assessment of Key Legislation and the Acceleration of Fundamental Change as well as Chancellor of the University of Venda, South Africa.

Mr Motlanthe was previously tasked with strengthening the trade union movement in South Africa. Under the National Union of Mineworkers, he was a national office-bearer responsible for education and was also involved in forming shop-steward committees. He was later elected as General Secretary of the union.


Mr Motlanthe also re-established the structures of African National Congress. He served as Secretary General of the ANC from 1997 to 2007, and continued on as Deputy President of the ANC till 2012.

Professor Sachs is widely considered to be one of the world’s leading experts on economic development, global macroeconomics, and the fight against poverty. His work on ending poverty, overcoming macroeconomic instability, promoting economic growth, fighting hunger and disease, and promoting sustainable environmental practices, has taken him to more than 125 countries with more than 90 percent of the world’s population. For more than thirty years he has advised dozens of heads of state and governments on economic strategy, in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. He was among the outside advisors to Pope John Paul II on the encyclical Centesimus Annus and in recent years has worked closely with the PontificalAcademy of Sciences and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences on the issues of sustainable development.


In 2008, Mr Motlanthe was elected President of the Republic of South Africa by Parliament. He served till 2009.

After his retirement as President, Mr Motlanthe was appointed Deputy President by President Jacob Zuma. During that period, he took on various leadership roles, of which included Leader of the Anti-Poverty Programme, Chairperson of the Human Resource Development Council and Chairperson of the South African National AIDS Council just to name a few.



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